Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood - it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies.
When our food is digested, the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream. Our cells use the glucose for energy and growth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being present - insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose.
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells, as soon as glucose enters the cells blood-glucose levels drop.
A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements.
How to determine whether you have diabetes, prediabetes or neither
Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways - there are three possible tests:
The A1C test
  • at least 6.5% means diabetes
  • between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes
  • less than 5.7% means normal
The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
  • at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes
  • between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes
  • less than 100 mg/dl means normal
An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
  • at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes
  • between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes
  • less than 140 mg/dl means normal
An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
Reference :
Medical New Today


New test for detecting biomarkers for cancer and diabetes is more than 1000x more detailed and 100% faster than existing methods, new research by the University of Warwick suggests. Developed to undertake a detailed study of collagen, the researchers argue that the same methodology can be used with any protein-based sample and is currently being tested with cancer cells and proteins relevant to Type II diabetes. Named 2D Mass Spectrometry (2DMS), the test provides a new tool in the rapidly expanding field research into the structure and function of proteins, Proteomics. Led by the O'Connor Research Group in the University of Warwick's Department of Chemistry, the researchers found that the large protein collagen can be sliced into smaller fragments and analyzed by multidimensional mass spectrometry to yield data which is 1000x more detailed than previously possible with mass spectrometry, and 100% faster than analyzing the same sample by existing techniques. Commenting on 2DMS and its potential Prof. Peter O'Connor, of the University of Warwick's department of Chemistry and leader of the O’Connor Group, said: "Within each and every cancer cell there are at least a million peptides comprising the protein machines that enable the cell to function.

Understanding the structure and chemistry of all peptides and proteins will enable ground-breaking treatments to be developed, with 2DMS providing a new tool for studying them in far greater detail than before". 2DMS was inspired by tools from the field of nuclear magnetic resonance whereby signals are spread out on a multidimensional canvas, by modulating particular signals in the sample and then tracing those modulation frequencies in the final signal. O'Connor explains: "The 2DMS method modulates ion signal intensities in a way which carries over into fragment ion signals, and therefore allows the researchers to correlate individual fragment ion signals with their precursor ion - effectively allowing sequencing of each molecule in the sample simultaneously." "Since collagen has more than 400 individual peptide signals and whole cells have tens of thousands, this method saves a huge amount of time because there is no need to individually isolate and fragment each one serially; they are all fragmented together in parallel, and the data can be then extracted into individual fragment scans." This application of 2DMS originates in the undergraduate thesis project of University of Warwick Chemistry student Hayley Simon. Initially aiming to find all the known crosslinks in collagen she ran into difficulty in processing the data due to the need to isolate each of the >400 precursor peptide ions and sequence them individually. Ms. Simon then decided to try the new 2DMS technique and managed to achieve a remarkable level of separation and very detailed information.

Discussing the work Ms. Simon said: "When studied by mass spectrometry, many species in the digested collagen sample appear similar. Disentangling this data, while accounting for multiple possible explanations, presented us with a significant challenge. Usually, the separation of species like this would not be possible without running many experiments." "By using 2DMS, we were able to collect information about everything we observed in the collagen sample, performing just one experiment. After processing, the results are presented as a single spectrum, allowing patterns to be easily recognized. This helps identify components in the sample, which in turn can be used to determine structural information about the protein.


University of Warwick More about the University of Warwick at: www.warwick.ac.uk

'Multiplicative' Benefit of Cholesterol and Blood Pressure-Lowering on Cardiovascular Risk
Long-term exposure to the combination of even modestly lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) has the potential to "dramatically reduce" a person's lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease, according to new findings reported at ESC Congress 2016.
The results, presented in a Hot Line session here, "demonstrate for the first time that LDL cholesterol and SBP have independent, multiplicative, and cumulative causal effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease," said the study's lead investigator Brian Ference MD, from Wayne State University School of Medicine, in Detroit.
"This suggests that a simple strategy that encourages long-term exposure to the combined reduction of both one mmol/L in LDL-C and 10 mmHg SBP has the potential to "largely eliminate" the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease -- with a reduction of up to 90%," he explained.
The study used genetic and cardiovascular risk factor data from 102,773 individuals who had participated in 14 prospective cohort or case-control studies.
Investigators calculated genetic scores for each patient based on inherited polymorphisms known to be associated of LDL-C or SBP and the number of alleles associated with raised LDL-C or SBP levels.
Participants were then divided into 4 groups: the reference group, a group with an LDL-C genetic score below the median (resulting in lower LDL-C), a group with a SBP genetic score below the median (resulting in lower SBP), and a group with both LDL-C and SBP genetic scores below the median (resulting in both lower LDL-C and lower SBP).
The researchers then looked at the cardiovascular risk associated with the different genetic scores, with the primary outcome being a composite of the first occurrence of either coronary death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke, or coronary revascularization.
There were 14,368 primary outcome events among the subjects.
Compared to the reference group, subjects in the lower LDL-C group had 54.2% lower risk of the primary outcome (OR 0.458), those in the lower SBP group had 44.7% lower risk (OR 0.553), and those in the combined lower LDL-C and SBP group had 86.1% lower risk (OR 0.139).
"The results of our study confirm that cardiovascular disease is largely preventable and suggest that this prevention can be substantially simplified by focusing on programs that promote longterm exposure to the combination of both lower LDL and lower SBP," concluded Dr. Ference. He added that "further study is needed to identify who might benefit most from this type of early intervention."
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The above post is reprinted from materials provided by European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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